Fiber laser cutting machine is to focus the laser light emitted from the laser into a high-power density laser beam through the optical path system. The laser beam irradiates the surface of the workpiece to make the workpiece reach the melting point or boiling point. At the same time, the high-pressure gas coaxial with the beam blows away the molten or vaporized metal.
As the relative position of the beam and the workpiece moves, the material will eventually form a slit, so as to achieve the purpose of cutting. Laser cutting processing is to replace the traditional mechanical knife with an invisible beam. It has the characteristics of high precision, fast cutting, not limited to the cutting pattern, automatic typesetting, saving material, smooth cutting, and low processing cost. It will gradually improve or replace it.
Traditional metal cutting process equipment. The mechanical part of the laser cutter head has no contact with the workpiece, and will not scratch the surface of the workpiece during work; the laser cutting speed is fast, the incision is smooth and flat, and generally does not need subsequent processing; the cutting heat affected zone is small, the plate deformation is small, and the slit is narrow ( 0.1mm~0.3mm); the incision has no mechanical stress, no shearing burr; high processing accuracy, good repeatability, and no damage to the surface of the material; CNC programming, can process any plan view, can cut the entire board with a large format, without Opening the mold saves time and economy.
The principle of Fiber laser cutting machine:
Laser is a kind of light, like other natural light, it is produced by the transition of atoms (molecules or ions, etc.). However, it is different from ordinary light in that the laser only relies on spontaneous emission for a very short period of time, and the subsequent process is completely determined by the excitation radiation. Therefore, the laser has a very pure color, almost no divergent directionality, and extremely high luminous intensity. And high coherence.
Laser cutting is achieved by applying high power density energy generated by laser focusing. Under the control of the computer, the laser is discharged through pulses, thereby outputting a controlled repetitive high-frequency pulsed laser to form a beam with a certain frequency and a certain pulse width. The pulsed laser beam is guided and reflected by the optical path and focused by the focusing lens group. On the surface of the processed object, a small, high-energy-density light spot is formed.
The focal spot is located near the surface to be processed, and the processed material is melted or vaporized at an instant high temperature. Each high-energy laser pulse instantly sputters a small hole on the surface of the object. Under computer control, the laser processing head and the processed material perform continuous relative movement according to the pre-drawn graphics, so that the object will be processed into The shape you want. The process parameters (cutting speed, laser power, gas pressure, etc.) and motion trajectory during slitting are controlled by the numerical control system, and the slag at the slit is blown away by a certain pressure of auxiliary gas.
The composition of Fiber laser cutting:
The Fiber laser cutting machine system generally consists of a laser generator, an (external) beam transmission component, a workbench (machine tool), a microcomputer numerical control cabinet, a cooler, and a computer (hardware and software).
- The main machine part of the machine tool: the machine part of the laser cutting machine, the mechanical part that realizes the movement of the X, Y, and Z axes, including the cutting work platform. It is used to place the workpiece to be cut and can move it correctly and accurately according to the control program, usually driven by a servo motor.
- Laser generator: a device that generates a laser light source. For the purpose of laser cutting, except for a few occasions using YAG solid-state lasers, most of them use CO2 gas lasers with higher electrical-optical conversion efficiency and higher output power. Because laser cutting requires high beam quality, not all lasers can be used for cutting. The Gaussian mode is suitable for less than 1500W, low-order mode carbon dioxide lasers 100W-3000W, and multimode above 3000W.
- Outer optical path: Refractive mirror, used to guide the laser in the required direction. In order to prevent the beam path from malfunctioning, all mirrors must be protected by a protective cover, and a clean positive pressure protective gas should be introduced to protect the lens from contamination. A set of lenses with good performance will focus a beam with no divergence angle into an infinitely small spot. Generally, a lens with a focal length of 5.0 inches is used. The 7.5-inch lens is only used for thick materials >12mm.
- Numerical control system: control the machine tool to realize the movement of X, Y, Z axis, and also control the output power of the laser.
- Regulated power supply: connected between the laser, CNC machine tool and the power supply system. Mainly play a role in preventing interference from external power grids.
- Cutting head: It mainly includes parts such as cavity, focusing lens holder, focusing lens, capacitive sensor and auxiliary gas nozzle. The cutting head driving device is used to drive the cutting head to move along the Z-axis according to the program, and is composed of a servo motor and transmission parts such as a screw or gear.
- Operating table: used to control the working process of the entire cutting device.
- Water chiller: used to cool the laser generator. A laser is a device that converts electrical energy into light energy. For example, the conversion rate of a CO2 gas laser is generally 20%, and the remaining energy is converted into heat. The cooling water takes away the excess heat to keep the laser generator working normally. The chiller also cools the light path mirror and focusing mirror outside the machine tool to ensure a stable beam transmission quality and effectively prevent the lens from being deformed or broken due to excessive temperature.
- Gas cylinders: Including the working medium gas cylinders and auxiliary gas cylinders of the laser cutting machine, which are used to supplement the industrial gas for laser oscillation and supply auxiliary gas for the cutting head.
- Air compressor, air storage tank: provide and store compressed air.
- Air cooling dryer, filter: used to supply clean and dry air to the laser generator and beam path to keep the path and reflector working normally.
- Ventilation dust collector: extract the smoke and dust generated during processing, and carry out filtering treatment, so that the exhaust gas discharge meets the environmental protection standards.
- Slag discharge machine: remove the leftover material and waste generated during processing.
Plasma cutting machine:
Plasma arc cutting machine is a machine that uses plasma cutting technology to process metal materials.
Plasma cutting is a processing method that uses the heat of a high-temperature plasma arc to partially or partially melt (and evaporate) the metal at the incision of the workpiece, and uses the momentum of the high-speed plasma to remove the molten metal to form an incision.
- Double mode selection of automatic and semi-automatic cutting
- Digital precision control of cutting length
- Easy to operate
The structure of the plasma cutting machine
- The frame adopts a fully welded structure, which is firm and reasonable, easy to operate, and durable.
- Fast cutting speed and high precision. The cutting opening is small, neat, and there is no slag drop phenomenon. On the basis of the traditional numerical control system, the control method for cutting is improved, and the secondary trimming processing is avoided.
- Suitable for low-carbon steel, copper, iron, aluminum, galvanized, titanium and other metal plates.
- The CNC system has a high configuration. Automatic arc ignition, stable performance, and the success rate of arc ignition is over 99%.
- Support standard G code path files generated by Wentai, Beihang Haier, ARTCAM, Type3 and other software. The control system adopts U disk to exchange processing files, which is convenient and quick to operate.
To sum up
Advantages and disadvantages of laser cutting machine:
- Fast cutting speed
- Good cutting effect
- Can cut various special-shaped workpieces
- High cutting accuracy
- High purchase cost
Advantages and disadvantages of plasma cutting machine:
- Slow cutting speed
- Cutting effect is not as smooth as laser
- Cutting accuracy is not as good as laser
- Cheap to buy
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