Several common cutting methods of 2000W fiber laser cutting machine can be divided into four types: laser melting cutting, laser vaporization cutting, laser oxygen cutting and laser scribing and controlled fracture.
1) Laser melting and cutting
When using laser melting and cutting, a laser beam is used to heat and melt a metal object, and then a non-oxidizing gas (Ar, He, N, etc.) is sprayed through a nozzle coaxial with the beam, and the liquid metal is discharged by the strong pressure of the gas. Make an incision. And laser melting and cutting do not need to vaporize the metal completely, and the energy required is only 1/10 of that of vaporized cutting.
This laser melting cutting is mainly used for cutting some materials that are not easy to oxidize or active metals, such as stainless steel, titanium, aluminum and their alloys.
2) Laser vaporization cutting
The high-energy density laser beam is used to heat the workpiece, so that the temperature rises rapidly and reaches the boiling point of the material in a very short time. The material begins to vaporize and form vapor. The steam is ejected at a very high speed, forming a cut in the material as the steam is ejected. The heat of vaporization of materials is very large, so laser vaporization requires a lot of power and power density.
Laser vaporization cutting is mostly used for cutting extremely thin metal materials and non-metal materials (such as paper, cloth, wood, plastic, rubber, etc.).
3) Laser oxygen cutting
The principle of laser oxygen cutting is similar to oxyacetylene cutting. It uses a laser as a preheating heat source and an active gas such as oxygen as a cutting gas. On the one hand, the injected gas reacts with the cutting metal to generate a large amount of oxidation heat; on the other hand, the molten oxide and molten material are blown out from the reaction zone, forming gaps in the metal. Due to the large amount of heat generated by oxidation in the cutting process, the energy required for laser cutting oxygen is only 1/2 of that of melting and cutting, but the cutting speed is much faster than laser vaporization cutting and melting cutting. Laser oxygen cutting is now mainly used by metal laser cutting machines to cut carbon steel, titanium steel, heat-treated steel and other easily oxidized metal materials.
4) Laser scribing and controlled fracture
Laser scribing uses a high-energy density laser to scan the surface of a brittle material. After the material is heated, it evaporates into a small groove, and then a certain pressure is applied, and the brittle material will crack along the small groove. The lasers used for laser scribing are generally Q-switched lasers and CO2 lasers.
Controlled fracture is the steep temperature distribution produced by laser grooving, which generates local thermal stress in brittle materials, causing the material to fracture along small grooves.
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